Discovered more than 30 years ago, Exosomes were considered refuse cans whose purpose was to discard unwanted cellular components. Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate that these secreted vesicles also act as messengers conveying information to distant tissues and causing physiological changes. Exosomes are very important in regenerative medicine. Exosomes are tiny vesicles, or packets, carrying all of the important information of the cell. They are released from stem cells and transfer to other cells passing on all of the information. They are critical to the proliferation of healthy cells. It is believed that the regeneration of healthy tissue is not a direct result of the stem cells, but rather the Exosomes left behind, that are critical in the transfer of information from one cell to another.
Exosomes are 100 nM cell-derived lipid vesicles that are secreted by most cell types, including MSCs, and are an essential part of intercellular communication. These vesicles allow cells like MSCs to share information with targeted tissues and protect the "information" inside from catabolic factors, increasing the uptake of tissue signaling. While their main role is to communicate with cells, they are also responsible for the spread of proteins (GFs), lipids, messenger RNA, and micro RNA.
Exosomes are known to enter the cytoplasm of a targeted cell and cause new growth factor expression in older cells by transcribing the resident mRNA immediately. These nucleic acids are the basis for transcription of thousands of new growth factors and growth factor receptors. There are over 300 active neo-natal growth and anti-inflammatory factors in Exosomes.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is considered one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for the repair of brain injuries and plays an important role in various links of nerve repair. Recent studies have shown that MSC-derived Exosomes may dominate the repair of brain injuries and help to promote angiogenesis, regulate immunity, inhibit apoptosis, and repair the nerves, and therefore they have a great potential in the treatment of brain injuries. Exosomes have also been seen to help with Osteoarthritis, Autoimmune diseases, Autism, Concussions, and COPD.
The most superior combination of therapies is the use of stem cells with additional exosomes. Exosomes can be administered by injection, intravenously or topically. Finally, there is something YOU can do to be proactive in regaining your health.